Children are often referred to see a paediatrician for assessment and diagnosis of ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). This can include both children who are hyperactive and those who are dreamy and inattentive but not hyperactive (previously called 'ADD'); in fact often these children go unrecognised. It is one of the commonest reasons for seeing a paediatrician. Assessment of ADHD involves a careful history and observation of a child across different environments. It is also important to explore whether there are any other associated difficulties, such as anxiety, learning difficulties such as mathematics or reading difficulties and motor coordination issues impacting on handwriting, for example. It is also important to look at the impact of ADHD across the areas of a child's life, such as friendships, academic skills, family relationships and mental health. While medication can be useful for some children, in isolation it is unlikely to be effective long term, so it is essential to set up good supports for each child according to their individual needs.