The term 'Autism Spectrum Disorder' is now used where previously children may have been given the label 'Asperger's Syndrome', autistic disorder or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Children with ASD experience difficulties with social communication and unusual or restricted or repetitive behaviours as core features. There can be a wide range, or spectrum, of severity and each child will have their own particular profile of developmental strengths and challenges. The diagnosis can only be formalised by a paediatrician or child psychiatrist but is best made using a multi-disciplinary approach and in considering a child's abilities across different environments. There has been increasing emphasis on identifying children with ASD, not only because there are better outcomes where therapeutic support has been started early but because we allocate funding largely on the basis of diagnosis. This includes the Helping Children With Autism package and specific funding within schools.